
Fig. 1 –Scatter plots of IWV versus S at 17, 19, 21 and 32 GHz for a tangent altitude of 2 km (upper panels) and of 6 km (lower panels). The regression lines are also shown. The three different shadings refer the polar, mid latitude and tropical layers.

Fig. 1 –Scatter plots of IWV versus S at 17, 19, 21 and 32 GHz for a tangent altitude of 2 km (upper panels) and of 6 km (lower panels). The regression lines are also shown. The three different shadings refer the polar, mid latitude and tropical layers.

Fig. 2 –Tangent altitude: 2 km. Left panel: true IWV along the path versus relative error in its estimate made at 17 GHz without correcting for the effects of liquid water. Center panel: as the left panel, but with the relative error computed over ensembles of IWV samples collected at intervals of 10 g/cm2. The number of IWV samples belonging to each ensemble is shown in the right panel. The four separate curves in the center and right panel refer to global Earth and to the three latitude intervals considered (polar, midlatitude, tropical)

Fig. 3 –Logamplitude variance profiles at 17 GHz for different values of the outer scale length. Structure constant profile derived from radiosonde data (Minneapolis station, 15/07/2008 at 12.00)

Fig. 3 – Logamplitude variance profiles at 17 GHz for different values of the outer scale length. Structure constant profile derived from radiosonde data (Minneapolis station, 15/07/2008 at